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Azo Dyes: History, Uses, Synthesis

Azo Dyes: History, Uses, Synthesis

Azo dyes are the most diverse group of synthetic dyes. Azo dyes are prepared in two steps. The diazonium salt being produced in the first one, the reaction with highly reactive aromatic compounds such as …
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Rf values calculation

Rf values: Definition, Calculation and Explanation

Retardation or retention factor (Rf) value is the ratio of distance traveled by the analyte to that of the solvent front on a chromatogram. The chromatographic techniques in which the analytes are added to …
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Coordinate (Dative) covalent bond

Coordinate (dative) covalent bond

The coordinate covalent bond, also known as the dative bond, is a type of covalent bond where both electrons are from the same atom. Usually, it happens in molecules where metallic ions are bonded to …
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Singlet vs Triplet state diagram representation

Singlet vs Triplet State

Singlet state is attributed to the appearance of a single spectral line. This occurs because all of the electrons are paired. Originally, the singlet state is referred to as a set of particles that had …
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Ethers vs Esters

Ethers vs Esters

Ethers are organic compounds that have an oxygen atom between two hydrocarbon chains. They are derivatives of alcohols and are represented by the symbol (ROR’). While esters have a carbonyl carbon bonded to an oxygen …
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Rules for assigning oxidation states

Rules for assigning oxidation numbers

Oxidation number or oxidation state is defined as the charge an atom has in a molecule or compound. It is an apparent charge on an atom of an element in a molecule or compound. It …
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Hydrolysis of esters

Hydrolysis of esters

The hydrolysis of an ester is a reaction in which the (-OR) group of the ester is replaced by the hydroxyl (-OH) group from water. This reaction can be catalyzed either by an acid or …
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Comparison of intermolecular forces

Strength of Intermolecular Forces

Molecules are formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms. As the name suggests, intermolecular forces are the electrostatic forces between molecules. These forces can be attractive or repulsive and act between ions or atoms …
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What does principle quantum number determine?

What Does Principal Quantum Number Determine?

The principal quantum number is related to the energy and size of the atomic orbits. It is denoted by ‘n’ and has integral values. As n increases, the electronic cloud (orbital) becomes larger and the …
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UV-Vis spectroscopy

UV-Vis Spectroscopy

Spectroscopy is the branch of chemistry concerned with the investigative measurements of spectrum. UV-VIS (ultraviolet-visible) spectroscopy or spectrophotometry is the study of the interaction of light with matter at electronic levels. It ranges from the …
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Enthalpy vs entropy

Enthalpy vs Entropy

Enthalpy (H) of a thermodynamic system is an energy-like state function property that is equal to the total internal energy (U) and pressure-volume (PV) work whereas entropy is an intrinsic disorderness of a system under …
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What is a primary standard?

A chemical with known concentration is termed standard in chemistry. Primary standards are taken as reference chemicals for finding concentrations of analytes. They are pure, high molecular weighed, stable, and non-toxic substances used to prepare …
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Constitutional vs stereoisomers

Constitutional vs Stereoisomers

Isomers are compounds having same molecular formulae but different structural formulae. The molecular formula shows the actual number of atoms whereas the structural formula shows the arrangement of atoms and bonds in a molecule. There …
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Nomenclature of alkenes-How to name alkenes?

How to name alkenes?

The hydrocarbons having one or more carbon to carbon double bond(s) are referred to as alkenes. They are also known as unsaturated hydrocarbons which reflect that addition reaction is possible. The general formula for alkenes …
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butanedioic acid vs ethyl propanoate

Carboxylic acids vs Ester

Carboxylic acids are the organic compounds having the (-COOH) functional group attached directly to the carbon atom. Whereas, esters are organic compounds with a (-COOR) functional group. Esters are derivatives of carboxylic acids and are …
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Latest CBs

Chemicals float over one another because of differences between their densities. Density is the property of a substance relating to …
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The logarithmic way of expressing the concentration of hydrogen ions in simple whole numbers between 0 and 14 is called …
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A function is an expression involving one or more variables. It is a rule that relates set of inputs with …
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Quinones are oxidized derivatives of aromatic compounds. The precursors of quinones can either be benzene or naphthalene. The alkenes (-C=C-) …
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Salt makes ice colder because it lowers its freezing/melting point. As a matter of fact, when a solute is added …
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When two smaller nuclei fuse to form one larger nucleus, an enormous amount of energy is released. The masses of …
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The spontaneity of a reaction can be explained with Gibbs’s free energy. Gibbs free energy is a thermodynamic property equal …
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Metals contain metallic bonds and form lattices. A metallic lattice is a three-dimensional arrangement of metal ions. The metal cations …
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Phenolphthalein (C20H14O4) is a weak organic acid. The conjugate base of phenolphthalein (Ph-) is pink in color whereas the undissociated/acidic …
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The peptide bond is formed during a condensation reaction between two amino acids. Amide ((CO)-NH-) group and carboxylic acid (-COOH) …
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Alkali metals are reactive because they are highly electropositive. Electropositivity is the property of an atom to lose its electrons …
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The Grignard reagent is an organometallic compound (RMgX). It is a highly reactive substance because of the negative charge present …
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Carbonated beverages contain carbon dioxide gas dissolved under high pressure. The presence of carbon dioxide creates bubbles and fizziness in …
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An ideal gas has no interactions between constituent molecules and all the collisions taking place between those molecules are perfectly …
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Water evaporates, at all temperatures. This is because evaporation is a surface phenomenon. On surface, some of the water molecules …
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An atom consists of a nucleus with a positive denser part at the center and negative electrons revolving around the …
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Sucrose or sugar (C12 H22 O11) crystals are composed of polar molecules. As the rule of thumb for solubility, “like …
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Fischer esterification is an important industrial method used to produce esters. It is convenient and easy to monitor. It uses …
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All chemical reactions occur in numbers, such as in number of atoms, ions, or molecules interacting. They are so small …
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Oxygen is a social and most widely occurring natural element on earth. It is an efficiently active and lively element …
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There are many biochemical processes taking place in living organisms that are pH sensitive i.e. They are usually enzyme catalyzed …
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Electronegativity increases across a period due to an increase in effective nuclear charge. The charge of protons is known as …
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Hydrocarbons are insoluble in water because they are non-polar compounds while water is a polar solvent. By principle, like dissolves …
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Electrons revolve around the nucleus in an atom. The path of these electrons is fixed and is known as orbits …
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Protons, neutrons, and electrons are subatomic particles present in an atom. The number of protons and electrons in a neutral …
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Generally, atoms react and complete their octet to become stable. However, noble gases already have a complete octet. They do …
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Chemical equations must be balanced to equate the number of atoms of reactants and products. As the law of conservation …
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Chemistry is the study of chemical changes occurring inside and outside the matter. Today, we are living in a world …
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The acidity of an acid can be determined by the stability of its conjugate base. The greater the stability of …
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Sodium bromide (NaBr) dissolves in water because of the hydration energy released as a result of ion-dipole interactions formed between …
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