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uses of formalin

Formalin (Formaldehyde): Common Uses and Applications

When 37% formaldehyde (HCHO) is stored in an aqueous solution is called formalin. It is a naturally occurring organic substance. However, the pure form of formalin is a colorless gas with a pungent smell. The …
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lewis dot structure

Lewis Dot Structure: Explanation, Drawing Methods, Examples

In 1916, an American chemist Gilbert Newton Lewis worked on how atoms are connected in a molecule. As a result of his research, he discovered covalent bonds and developed a method to represent the bonds …
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Synthetic substances and materials

Synthetic Materials: The Artificial Wonders

Synthetic materials are derived materials from natural ones that achieve in minutes, which otherwise would take months to achieve. These materials are in fact natural materials with altered sequences, characteristics, uses, activation energies, etc. Many different …
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types of organic reactions

Types of Organic Reactions and their Examples

The organic compound undergoes chemical changes (transfer of groups) to attain stability. These chemical changes are known as organic reactions. There are eight main types of organic reactions. They are named substitution reaction, addition reaction, …
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Difference between accuracy and precision

Accuracy vs. Precision: The Similarities and Differences

Accuracy and precision are the terms used in scientific measurements but they are generally confused with each other. The main difference between accuracy and precision is that; Accuracy is the extent to which the measurement …
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wedge and dash

Wedge and Dash: The Ideal Model for Molecular Geometry

When drawing a three-dimensional structure of molecules on the paper, the wedge and dash model is used to point out the position and dimension of atoms in a molecule. It was proposed by the biologist …
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thermal radiation

Thermal Radiation: Explanation, Characteristics, Examples

When an object is heated up, it transfers heat energy to the surroundings of that object. There are three ways to transfer heat from one place to another conduction, convection, and thermal radiation. Conduction occurs …
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Aqua Regia: The “Royal Water” or “King’s Water”

Aqua Regia: The “Royal Water” or “King’s Water”

Aqua Regia, the ‘royal water’ was first prepared by a famous alchemist by the name of Abū Mūsā Jābir ibn Ḥayyān in the 8th century A.D. This traditional volatile solution is a mixture of nitric …
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Rutherford's Atomic Model

Rutherford Atomic Model

Rutherford’s Atomic model is significant, as the discovery of dense positively charged particles in the center of an atom had unfolded many ways for the scientists to discover more about the structure of an atom …
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bond pair vs lone pair

Bond pair vs lone pair: key difference, Theory explanation, Examples

The bond pair and lone pair are the electrons pairs. The key difference between bond pair and lone pair is that bond pair is involved in bonding while lone pair is never. When chemical reactions …
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evaporation vs boiling

Evaporation vs Boiling: Key difference, Explanation, Examples

Evaporation and boiling are two different processes. Evaporation is the change of a liquid into the gaseous phase by natural method. Boiling is a process in which liquid is converted into a vapor phase by …
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delocalized pi bond

Delocalized Pi Bond: Explanation and Examples

Delocalized pi bonds are those bonds that contain delocalized electrons among nuclei of the atoms. These bonds are situated below and above the sigma bonds. The p orbitals combine with each other. As a result …
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primary vs secondary alcohols

Primary vs Secondary Alcohols: The Key Differences

Alcohols have a hydroxyl group (OH) attached to their aliphatic carbon atom. They are classified based on the numbers of the hydroxyl group (OH) present in the molecule. Alcohols with only one hydroxyl group (OH) …
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phosphodiester bond

Phosphodiester Bond: Definition, Formation, Importance

Phosphodiester bond means the formation of two ester bonds when two hydroxyl groups (OH) of phosphoric acid (H3PO4) react with two hydroxyl groups (OH) of other molecules. This results removal of water between the molecules …
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Difference between base and a nucleophile

Nucleophile vs Base

A nucleophile is the nucleus-loving species that always bear a lone pair, sometimes having a negative charge as well, and readily attacks the electrophilic center mostly carbon to initiate a chemical reaction whereas, the Base …
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SN1 vss SN2

SN1 vs SN2 – Types of Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions

Nucleophilic substitution at the tetravalent carbon is a fundamental reaction. The understanding of this reaction was developed in England by C.K. Ingold and E.D. Hughes in the 1930s. Nucleophilic substitution reactions (SN1 vs SN2) have …
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organic compounds defination and classificaiton

Organic Compounds: Introduction, Applications, Examples

Organic compounds are distinct from inorganic compounds. Early scientists failed to synthesize organic compounds. Organic compounds are derived from living things. They cannot be synthesized in a laboratory known as vital force theory. This theory …
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heat of fusion

Heat of Fusion (Enthalpy change): Explanation with Examples

Heat of fusion is defined as the heat or enthalpy change when a solid substance is converted into a liquid state at its melting point. Greater the heat of fusion of a substance higher the …
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acid base (alkali) titration

Acid-alkali Titrations

Acid alkali titration is a quantitative analysis method in which we obtain information about a solution, that contains acid or base. This type of titration gives information about the concentration as well as the strength …
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Chromatography types and examples

Chromatography: Working Principles and Applications

Chromatography is a precise analytical technique, used to separate components of a mixture on the basis of relative affinity. This separation takes place between two phases i.e, the stationary phase and the mobile phase. In …
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Raoult's law

Raoult’s Law: Derivation and Deviations from Ideal Behavior

Raoult’s law was proposed by French chemist Francois Marie Raoult in 1886. It states that the vapor pressure of any volatile substance in a solution is equal to the vapor pressure of a pure substance …
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mineral acids and their types

Mineral Acids: Common Inorganic Acids, their Properties, and Uses

Mineral acids are derived from inorganic compounds. They are also known as inorganic acids. One thing that is common in all mineral acids is the presence of hydrogen atoms. When a mineral acid is added …
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bunsen burner

Bunsen Burner: Working, Parts, Types and Uses

The Bunsen burner is a type of gas burner designed by a German scientist named Robert Bunsen in 1857. It produces a smokeless and non-luminous flame which is required to initiate various chemical reactions. The …
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capillay action: why liquid rise in tube?

Capillary Action: Explanation, Derivation, Examples

Capillary action is the movement of liquid in the upward direction with the solid surface. This is caused by the attraction between the molecules of liquid and solid. Molecular attractions arise due to forces, like …
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Enzymes - types of inhibitors and inhibition

Types of Enzyme Inhibition and Inhibitors

Inhibitors are the compounds that block the enzyme activity either temporarily or permanently. They interact with certain groups in the enzymes and reduce or stop their activity. In order to learn the types of inhibition, …
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saponificaion: chemistry of soap

Saponification: The Chemistry of Soap Formation

Saponification is a chemical reaction that produces soap. Glycerol is a byproduct in this reaction. Soap can be precipitated out from glycerol in the form of salts by reacting with sodium chloride. As soon as …
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