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Mutarotation: The α,β Sugars Interconversion

Mutarotation: The α,β Sugars Interconversion

Mutarotation, discovered by Augustin Pierre Dubrunfaut in 1844, is the interconversion of alpha(α) and beta(β) anomeric forms of cyclic sugars. This interconversion is the change in the optical rotation property which develops over time. Mutarotation …
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Epimers: The Epimeric Diastereomers

Epimers: The Epimeric Diastereomers

Epimers are stereoisomers, and to be exact, they are a pair of diastereomers with more than one chiral center but differ only at one of those chiral centers. Diastereomers are non-superimposable and non-mirror, images of …
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intermolecular forces

Intermolecular forces: Types, Explanation, Examples

Inter‘ means ‘between’ as happening between two things, shows that the term ‘intermolecular forces’ refers to the electrostatic forces of attraction or repulsion between molecules. Another similar term, ‘intramolecular forces’ means the forces present between …
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Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: The Thermal Equilibrium law

The zeroth law of thermodynamics states that; “If two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a third body, they are in thermal equilibrium with each other as well” The law of thermal equilibrium, the zeroth …
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Alpha(α) and Beta(β) Glucose

Alpha(α) and Beta(β) Glucose: Comparison, Structures, Explanation

Glucose, also known as dextrose is the most common simple sugar (monosaccharide). It has two isomeric structures, i.e. dextrose-(D) glucose and Lactose-(L) glucose. The dextrose-(D) glucose contains two further isomers, i.e. alpha (α) and beta …
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Acetal vs Hemiacetal: Synthesis, Examples, Uses

Acetal vs Hemiacetal: Synthesis, Examples, Uses

Acetal and Hemiacetal are the main classes of carbohydrates i.e. organic compounds that differ in their functionality based on differences in the number of ether linkages present. Acetals are compounds with two ether (-OR) linkages …
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Aldose vs Ketose

Aldose vs Ketose: Structural Isomeric Monosaccharides

Aldoses and ketoses and monosaccharides (simple sugar molecules) with differences in the type of functional groups. Aldoses are monosaccharide molecules containing the aldehyde functional group. They have a general formula Cn(H2O)n and occur as both D …
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7 Differences Between Hydrolysis and Dehydration

7 Differences Between Hydrolysis and Dehydration

There are different types of chemical reactions. Among the most common are hydrolysis and dehydration. In addition to their experimental and industrial use, these two reactions are important in biological systems, especially in metabolic activities …
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Molarity vs Molality which One to Prefer in Analytical Chemistry

Molarity vs Molality: Which One to Prefer?

Molarity and molality both measure the concentration of solutions. Molarity (M) is the measure of moles of solute per liter of solution. Whereas molality (m) is the measure of moles of solute per kilogram of …
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Chemical indicators Ranges and the Science behind Color changes

Chemical indicators: Ranges and the Science behind Color changes

Chemical indicators are organic substances that are used to determine the endpoint. Indicators are generally weak acids or weak bases. Indicators change their colors at a certain pH range due to ionization. Unionized forms essentially …
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Homogeneous vs Heterogeneous Mixtures: The key differences

Homogeneous vs Heterogeneous Mixtures: The key differences

A mixture is a blend of two or more substances when each of them has its own identification and properties. The resultant mixture can be solid, liquid, or gas. Primarily, a mixture can be homogeneous …
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Colligative properties of solutions- Elevation in boiling point - Depression in freezing point - Lowering of vapour pressure - Osmotic pressure

Colligative properties of solutions

Colligative properties are the properties that originate in solutions upon addition of solutes. These are the physical changes dependent on the quantity of both solute and solvent constituting the understudy solution. Colligative properties are dependent …
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Enols vs Enolates vs Enamines

Enol vs Enolate vs Enamine

Enols are alkenes with alcoholic functional groups. Enolates are the conjugate bases while enamines are the nitrogen analogs of such enols. In other words, enols are the organic compounds with alkene and alcoholic functional groups …
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Randles-Sevcik equation: The Cyclic Voltammetry peak current (Ip)

Randles-Sevcik equation: The Cyclic Voltammetry peak current (Ip)

Randles-Sevcik equation is the formulated mathematical equation to calculate the peak current (ip) using scan rate (v) in an observed voltammogram. For redox reaction cycles like ferrocene/ferrocenium couple, peak current (ip) depends on the concentration …
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Recrystallization Types Procedure Applications

Recrystallization: Types, Procedure, Applications

Recrystallization is a separation technique used to separate compounds based on their different solubilities at different temperatures. Usually, recrystallization is used to separate compounds with significantly large differences in volumes, i.e. to separate impurities from …
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Polar vs nonpolar

Polar vs Nonpolar bonds: What is the Main Difference?

The main difference between polar and nonpolar bonds is their electronegativity. The greater the electronegativity difference between the bonded atoms greater is the polarity. Both polar and nonpolar bonds are covalent bonds. However, polar bonds …
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Enone and Enal: Alpha-beta unsaturated carbonyl compounds

An enone is an unsaturated functional group consisting of a conjugated system of an alkene and ketonic group. Enal on the other hand is a similar unsaturated functional group with alkene and aldehydic groups attached …
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Featured image of Trigonal pyramidal vs Trigonal planar geometries

Trigonal pyramidal vs Trigonal planar geometry

A geometrical arrangement of molecular atoms having three branches or atoms connected to a central atom is called trigonal geometry. Now that there are different combinations of this type of geometry, trigonal pyramidal and trigonal …
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Protic vs Aprotic Solvents (with Examples) featured image

Protic vs Aprotic Solvents (with Examples)

Solvents are broadly classified into two types, polar and nonpolar solvents. Polar solvents are further divided into protic and aprotic solvents. Concisely, the difference between protic and aprotic solvents can be written as: “Protic …
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Types of Chemical Reactions and their Identifications

Types of Chemical Reactions and their Identifications

There are five basic types of chemical reactions namely synthesis, decomposition, displacement, double displacement, and combustion reactions. Understanding these types of reactions will be useful in predicting the products of chemical reactions when given only …
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Lewis acids vs Lewis bases

Lewis acid vs Lewis base: Comparison with Examples

Lewis acids and Lewis bases can be defined as chemical species, capable of transferring an electron pair from one species to another by a sort of donation. The result is the formation of a coordinate …
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Intensive vs Extensive Properties

Intensive and extensive properties are the two types of physical properties. The properties which can be observed and measured easily are called physical properties. For example color, melting point, boiling point, temperature, and odor, etc …
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Carbonyl vs Carboxyl Compounds

Carbonyl vs Carboxyl Compounds

The compounds having a carbonyl (>C=O) group are called carbonyl compounds. In a carbonyl group, there is a double bond between carbon and oxygen atom, and the carbon is further attached to hydrogens or carbons …
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Formal Charge: The Rules-Calculation-Significance

Formal Charge: The Rules, Calculation and Significance

The apparent charge assigned to an atom in a molecule is termed formal charge. It is a representation of charge distribution in a molecule assuming that all electrons are equidistant from bonding atoms with no …
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Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (AES)

Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (AES)

Atomic emission spectroscopy (AES) is an analytical technique used for the quantification of metal atoms by measuring the intensity of light emitted by the atoms in excited states. When an excited atom returns to the …
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Latest CBs

Entropy is a measure of the dispersal of energy at a specific temperature from the system to the surrounding or …
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The boiling point is the temperature at which the vapour pressure of the liquid becomes equal to the provided atmospheric …
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Metals have a sea of free electrons in their structures. These electrons are the source of conduction when in an …
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Mercury is liquid at room temperature due to its unique electronic configuration status and special contraction in its atomic size …
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Sodium chloride has a lattice crystalline structure which corresponds to good solubility in water and its brittleness. Lattice structures are …
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Water can dissolve more chemical substances than any other solvent because of its polar nature and hydrogen bonding formation ability …
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Amines vs Amides vs Imines
Amines are the organic nitrogen compound derived from ammonia in which one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by an …
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Polar covalent bonds form when the constituent atoms have an electronegativity difference between (0.4 and 1.7). It means that the …
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Brittleness is a property of a substance that fractures when subjected to force. When stress is applied to a substance, …
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An ionic bond is formed between two atoms when there is a significant electronegativity difference i.e. (ΔEN > 1.7). Ionic …
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Chemicals float over one another because of differences between their densities. Density is the property of a substance relating to …
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The logarithmic way of expressing the concentration of hydrogen ions in simple whole numbers between 0 and 14 is called …
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A function is an expression involving one or more variables. It is a rule that relates set of inputs with …
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Quinones are oxidized derivatives of aromatic compounds. The precursors of quinones can either be benzene or naphthalene. The alkenes (-C=C-) …
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Salt makes ice colder because it lowers its freezing/melting point. As a matter of fact, when a solute is added …
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When two smaller nuclei fuse to form one larger nucleus, an enormous amount of energy is released. The masses of …
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The spontaneity of a reaction can be explained with Gibbs’s free energy. Gibbs free energy is a thermodynamic property equal …
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Metals contain metallic bonds and form lattices. A metallic lattice is a three-dimensional arrangement of metal ions. The metal cations …
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Phenolphthalein (C20H14O4) is a weak organic acid. The conjugate base of phenolphthalein (Ph-) is pink in color whereas the undissociated/acidic …
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The peptide bond is formed during a condensation reaction between two amino acids. Amide ((CO)-NH-) group and carboxylic acid (-COOH) …
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Alkali metals are reactive because they are highly electropositive. Electropositivity is the property of an atom to lose its electrons …
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The Grignard reagent is an organometallic compound (RMgX). It is a highly reactive substance because of the negative charge present …
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Carbonated beverages contain carbon dioxide gas dissolved under high pressure. The presence of carbon dioxide creates bubbles and fizziness in …
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An ideal gas has no interactions between constituent molecules and all the collisions taking place between those molecules are perfectly …
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Water evaporates, at all temperatures. This is because evaporation is a surface phenomenon. On surface, some of the water molecules …
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An atom consists of a nucleus with a positive denser part at the center and negative electrons revolving around the …
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Sucrose or sugar (C12 H22 O11) crystals are composed of polar molecules. As the rule of thumb for solubility, “like …
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Fischer esterification is an important industrial method used to produce esters. It is convenient and easy to monitor. It uses …
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All chemical reactions occur in numbers, such as in number of atoms, ions, or molecules interacting. They are so small …
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Oxygen is a social and most widely occurring natural element on earth. It is an efficiently active and lively element …
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