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micellle formation

Micelle Formation: Explanation with CMC

Micelle is a cluster of amphiphilic molecules dispersed in a liquid. They form a colloidal suspension when surfactants tend to dissociate in water. They are also known as the associate colloidal systems. The molecule of …
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d-d transition

d-d Transitions: The Reason Behind Colored Complexes

Coordination compounds exhibit unique visible colors. The reason behind this is the crystal field splitting of d-orbitals of the central metal atom. The electrons present in the ground state absorb light in visible range and …
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cloud seeding

Cloud Seeding: History, Types, and Impacts

Cloud seeding is a weather-modification method. It was discovered by Vincent J. Schaefer, an American chemist in 1946 after WWII. Its purpose is to induce rain and snowfall which may lead to reduced droughts. The …
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AAS vs AES - spectroscopic techniques

Atomic Absorption vs. Atomic Emission Spectroscopy

Spectroscopy is an advanced analytical technique. It is the study of the interaction of light with matter. Atomic absorption spectroscopy is used to evaluate the concentration of the analyte. In this technique the absorption of …
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Atomic absorption spectroscopy

Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS)

Atomic absorption spectroscopy is a precise analytical technique.  It is used for the quantification of metals present in the analyte. It is one of the best techniques to detect the sample at trace levels such …
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molecular geometry

Molecular Geometry: A Complete Overview

Molecular geometry can be defined as the arrangement of atoms of molecules in a 3-dimensional space. This gives a proper shape to molecules. There are some advanced techniques that help to understand the molecular geometry …
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Schrodinger wave equation - time independent equation -

Time-Independent Schrödinger Wave Equation

In 1926, Austrian physicist Erwin Rudolph Joseph Alexander Schrödinger presented a mathematical concept of wave-particle dualism. He thought that the electrons have standing waves just like waves of a stretched string. This was a new …
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Radioactive decay - types and examples

Radioactive decay | Types and Examples

Elements with unstable nuclei undergo radioactive decay in different types or modes. The type of radioactive decay depends upon the particular nuclide involved. Radioactive decay can be characterized by alpha decay (helium nucleus), beta decay …
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nuclear chain reaction

Nuclear Chain Reactions: Types, Applications

A nuclear chain reaction is a process in which nuclear reactions repeat in a chain. For example, when a nucleus of uranium-235 is hit by a neutron, it splits into two small nuclei barium (Ba) …
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carbon dating

Carbon Dating: Principle, Methods, Examples, and Limitations

Carbon dating, also called radiocarbon dating, was discovered by Willard Frank Libby in the 1940s. It is a method used to determine the age of organic substances. It works on the principle of radioactive decay …
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half life in chemistry

Half-Life in Chemistry: Calculations and Examples

The half-life of a substance (atoms, molecules, or ions) refers to the time it takes for half of its given amount to radioactively decay. The rate at which reactants are converted into products is always …
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Physisorption vs. Chemisorption The Two ways of Adsorption - Featured image

Physisorption vs. Chemisorption: The Two Adsorptions

When a surface of solid or liquid is exposed to a substance, molecules of that substance concentrate at that surface. The phenomenon of accumulation of a substance on the surface of a solid or liquid …
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Freundlich Adsorption Isotherm: Applications and Limitations

Herbert Freundlich in 1909 gave an expression known as Freundlich adsorption isotherm, also called Freundlich equation. This equation is an empirical relationship between the quantity of gas adsorbed on the surface of the adsorbent and …
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FAI vs LAI - image

Freundlich vs. Langmuir Adsorption Isotherms

The graphical relationship between the amount of the substance being adsorbed per unit concentration of the adsorbate and the applied pressure is called adsorption isotherm. Various adsorption isotherms are employed for explaining the extent of …
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Boyle's law

Boyle’s Law: Definition, Explanation, Applications

Boyle’s law explains the relationship between the variables, pressure, and volume, at a constant temperature. The volume of a gas depends on different factors like temperature and pressure. The temperature has a direct while pressure …
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charles's law

Charles’s Law: Definition, Explanation, Applications

Charles’s law explains how gases expand when they are heated. This law is also known as the law of volume. It is because the volume has a direct relationship to the temperature of gases such …
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Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): Harmful Impacts and Alternatives

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are a type of hydrocarbons containing chlorine, fluorine, and carbon atoms. They are easy to compress, inert, low toxic, and are not flammable as well. Due to these specific physical properties, they have …
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Organic vs Inorganic compounds

Organic vs. Inorganic Compounds: The Main Differences

Organic and inorganic compounds are substances that differ from each other in terms of their structure, properties, and chemical reactions. An organic compound contains carbon atoms while an inorganic compound usually does not have carbon …
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blocks of periodic table

Blocks of the Periodic Table| s-p-d-f Blocks

The periodic table is divided into four blocks depending on the type of shells being filled. These are s, p, d, and f block elements that constitute the whole periodic table. The term block was …
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Osmotic pressure image

Osmotic Pressure: Determination and Applications

Osmotic pressure is one of the colligative properties of the solution. If two solutions at different concentrations are separated by a semi-permeable membrane, it allows only the solvent molecules to pass through, from a lower …
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properties of matter solid liquid and gases

Properties of Solid, Liquid, Gases: A Comparison

Everything that occupies space and has some weight is called matter. There are four states of matter that are; solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. However, gases, liquids, and solids are three common states of matter …
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Difference between amorphous and crystalline solids

Amorphous vs. Crystalline Solids: Which is True Solid?

There are two types of solids i.e. amorphous and crystalline. These solids have structural differences in the arrangement of their atoms. Amorphous solids are pseudo solids, and they have ions, atoms, or molecules that are …
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Hydrochloric acid vs. Sulfuric acid - HCl vs H2SO4

Hydrochloric acid vs. Sulfuric acid: The Differences

Acids are the species that donate protons. Hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid both are strong acids but hydrochloric acid is stronger than the latter. The main difference between HCl and H2SO4 is that HCl is monoprotic …
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properties of water

Physical and Chemical Properties of Water

Water is the most abundant chemical substance in the universe. It is vital for all living things and the main constituent of the earth’s hydrosphere. It is an inorganic, colorless, odorless, and tasteless substance. There …
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HSAB Theory: Hard soft acid base

HSAB theory| Hard and Soft, Acids and Bases

The Hard and Soft, Acids and Bases (HSAB) concept was introduced by R. G. Pearson in 1963. It is a widely used technique in chemistry to explain the reaction mechanisms and pathways of several compounds …
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salts in chemistry

Salts in Chemistry: Preparation, Types, Properties, and Uses

Salts are chemical compounds made by the reaction between acids and bases. When an acid reacts with a base, a salt is formed. Salts have characteristic and consistent properties different from their ingredient elements. They …
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