Latest Topics

Rate-determining Step

The path that reactants follow to form the products in a chemical reaction is known as the mechanism of the reaction. It is the slowest step of a reaction mechanism that determines the overall rate …
Read More

Bond Energy

Bond energy is defined as the amount of energy required to break all bonds of a particular type in one mole of the given substance. It is expressed in units of kilojoules per mole (kJmol-1) …
Read More

Mass Spectrometry

Mass spectrometry is one of the analytical techniques for characterizing matter, based on the determination of atomic or molecular masses of individual species present in a sample.  The sample under investigation is bombarded with a …
Read More

Coordination Isomerism

Isomerism is the existence of multiple chemical compounds with the same chemical composition but different structures and properties. This phenomenon is not limited to organic compounds but finds itself in inorganic substances as well. Coordination …
Read More

Naming Coordination Compounds

Coordination compounds are made of central metal atom/ion(s), surrounded by a specified number of ligands. The ligands can be atoms, ions, or molecules and are attached to the metal through a coordinate covalent bond. The …
Read More

Coordination Number

Coordination number, or ligancy, refers to the number of atoms, molecules, or ions (ligands) bonded to the central atom or ion through coordinate/dative covalent bond.  In Werner’s theory for coordination compounds, the coordination number is …
Read More
Synthetic substances and materials

Synthetic Materials: The Artificial Wonders

Synthetic materials are derived materials from natural ones that achieve in minutes, which otherwise would take months to achieve. These materials are in fact natural materials with altered sequences, characteristics, uses, activation energies, etc. Many different …
Read More
Difference between accuracy and precision

Accuracy vs. Precision: The Similarities and Differences

Accuracy and precision are the terms used in scientific measurements but they are generally confused with each other. The main difference between accuracy and precision is that; Accuracy is the extent to which the measurement …
Read More
Aqua Regia: The “Royal Water” or “King’s Water”

Aqua Regia: The “Royal Water” or “King’s Water”

Aqua Regia, the ‘royal water’ was first prepared by a famous alchemist by the name of Abū Mūsā Jābir ibn Ḥayyān in the 8th century A.D. This traditional volatile solution is a mixture of nitric …
Read More
London Dispersion Forces - The weakest forces

London Dispersion Forces| The Weakest Ones

London dispersion forces are weak intermolecular forces between non-polar molecules, commonly known as instantaneous dipoles-induced dipoles. These forces are named after the German physicist, Fritz London (1900-1954). Electrons are considered to be symmetrically distributed around …
Read More
Electronegativity Trends Scales and Applications

Electronegativity | Trends, Scales & Applications

Electronegativity is defined as the relative tendency of an atom in a molecule to attract the bonded pair of electrons towards itself. For the electronegativity difference/polarity phenomenon to occur, the bonded atoms must be different.  …
Read More
Types of Crystals and crystalline strcutures

Crystal Structures | Types with Explanation

A crystal structure refers to the repeating arrangement of particles in a solid. It displays the arrangement of atoms in a three-dimensional structure. There are 4 basic types of crystal structures, which are further divided …
Read More
supercritical fluid

Supercritical fluid: Properties, Uses and Phase Diagram

A supercritical fluid (SCF) is a state of matter of a substance in which the temperature and pressure are above the critical point, resulting in properties between those of a gas and a liquid. When …
Read More
Uses of caustic soda

Caustic Soda (NaOH): Uses and Industrial Applications

Caustic soda is the common name for sodium hydroxide. It is one of the strongest known alkali (water-soluble base). The chemical formula of caustic soda is NaOH. It is a white solid comprising sodium cations …
Read More
talc (talcum minerals)

Talc: Explanation, Structure, Formation, Uses

Talc is an alternative name for talcum, an industrial mineral of magnesium trisilicates with a chemical formula Mg3Si4O10(OH)2. It is pure in composition (oxygen, silicon, and magnesium). Sometimes, it is composed of other metals in …
Read More
Properties of Salts

Physical and Chemical Properties of Salts

Salts are ionic compounds with a net charge of zero. They are produced when cations and anions form electrostatic forces of attraction. Salts are most commonly defined as products of neutralization reactions when cations from …
Read More
edman degradation

Edman Degradation: Chemistry, Steps, Limitations, Uses

Edman degradation is a chemical method developed by a biochemist, Pehr Edman in 1950. This process is used for labeling or purification of proteins by removing the N-terminal residue of peptides without damaging the whole …
Read More
Uses of hydrochloric acid HCl

Uses of Hydrochloric Acid: Common and Industrial Applications

Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid, also known as muriatic acid. It is a colorless solution of hydrogen and chlorine with a pungent smell. It has the chemical formula of HCl. In this compound, hydrogen …
Read More
Racemic Mixture: Explanation & Examples

Racemic Mixture: Explanation and Examples

A racemic mixture is a mixture of two different enantiomers, present in almost equal amounts. In a racemic mixture Dextro (D) and Levo (L) enantiomers are present in 1:1 amounts. A racemate cannot rotate plane-polarized …
Read More
Bond length

Bond Length: Explanation and Factors

Bond length is defined as the distance between two nuclei of atoms in a covalent bond. It can also be defined as the internuclear distance when there is a maximum possible orbital overlap. This distance …
Read More
uses of sulfuric acid

Sulphuric Acid Uses and Industrial Applications

Sulfuric acid is the king of chemicals due to its wide range of uses in several industries. It is a well-known mineral acid also known as the oil of vitriol. It comprises three major elements; oxygen, …
Read More
Magnesium vs Manganese

Magnesium vs. Manganese: Uses, Properties, and Functions

Magnesium and manganese may be confused with each other because of their similar names and chemical symbols. But, there are many notable differences between these elements in several properties, be they general, atomic, thermodynamic, or …
Read More
micellle formation

Micelle Formation: Explanation with CMC

Micelle is a cluster of amphiphilic molecules dispersed in a liquid. They form a colloidal suspension when surfactants tend to dissociate in water. They are also known as the associate colloidal systems. The molecule of …
Read More
Specific heat vs heat capacity

Specific Heat vs. Heat Capacity

When we heat a substance, it starts absorbing heat up to a certain limit, after which, its temperature starts rising. This limit of a substance to tolerate or absorb heat without raising the temperature is …
Read More
d-d transition

d-d Transitions: The Reason Behind Colored Complexes

Coordination compounds exhibit unique visible colors. The reason behind this is the crystal field splitting of d-orbitals of the central metal atom. The electrons present in the ground state absorb light in visible range and …
Read More
cloud seeding

Cloud Seeding: History, Types, and Impacts

Cloud seeding is a weather-modification method. It was discovered by Vincent J. Schaefer, an American chemist in 1946 after WWII. Its purpose is to induce rain and snowfall which may lead to reduced droughts. The …
Read More

Sign up for PSIBERG