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Synthetic substances and materials

Synthetic Materials: The Artificial Wonders

Synthetic materials are derived materials from natural ones that achieve in minutes, which otherwise would take months to achieve. These materials are in fact natural materials with altered sequences, characteristics, uses, activation energies, etc. Many different …
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Difference between accuracy and precision

Accuracy vs. Precision: The Similarities and Differences

Accuracy and precision are the terms used in scientific measurements but they are generally confused with each other. The main difference between accuracy and precision is that; Accuracy is the extent to which the measurement …
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Aqua Regia: The “Royal Water” or “King’s Water”

Aqua Regia: The “Royal Water” or “King’s Water”

Aqua Regia, the ‘royal water’ was first prepared by a famous alchemist by the name of Abū Mūsā Jābir ibn Ḥayyān in the 8th century A.D. This traditional volatile solution is a mixture of nitric …
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talc (talcum minerals)

Talc: Explanation, Structure, Formation, Uses

Talc is an alternative name for talcum, an industrial mineral of magnesium trisilicates with a chemical formula Mg3Si4O10(OH)2. It is pure in composition (oxygen, silicon, and magnesium). Sometimes, it is composed of other metals in …
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Properties of Salts

Physical and Chemical Properties of Salts

Salts are ionic compounds with a net charge of zero. They are produced when cations and anions form electrostatic forces of attraction. Salts are most commonly defined as products of neutralization reactions when cations from …
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edman degradation

Edman Degradation: Chemistry, Steps, Limitations, Uses

Edman degradation is a chemical method developed by a biochemist, Pehr Edman in 1950. This process is used for labeling or purification of proteins by removing the N-terminal residue of peptides without damaging the whole …
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Uses of hydrochloric acid HCl

Uses of Hydrochloric Acid: Common and Industrial Applications

Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid, also known as muriatic acid. It is a colorless solution of hydrogen and chlorine with a pungent smell. It has the chemical formula of HCl. In this compound, hydrogen …
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Racemic Mixture: Explanation & Examples

Racemic Mixture: Explanation & Examples

A racemic mixture is a mixture of two different enantiomers, present in almost equal amounts. In a racemic mixture Dextro (D) and Levo (L) enantiomers are present in 1:1 amounts. A racemate cannot rotate plane-polarized …
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Bond length

Bond Length: Explanation and Factors

Bond length is defined as the distance between two nuclei of atoms in a covalent bond. It can also be defined as the internuclear distance when there is a maximum possible orbital overlap. This distance …
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uses of sulfuric acid

Sulphuric Acid Uses and Industrial Applications

Sulfuric acid is the king of chemicals due to its wide range of uses in several industries. It is a mineral acid also known as the oil of vitriol. It comprises three major elements; oxygen, …
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Magnesium vs Manganese

Magnesium vs. Manganese: Uses, Properties, and Functions

Magnesium and manganese may be confused with each other because of their similar names and chemical symbols. But, there are many notable differences between these elements in several properties, be they general, atomic, thermodynamic, or …
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micellle formation

Micelle Formation: Explanation with CMC

Micelle is a cluster of amphiphilic molecules dispersed in a liquid. They form a colloidal suspension when surfactants tend to dissociate in water. They are also known as the associate colloidal systems. The molecule of …
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Specific heat vs heat capacity

Specific Heat vs. Heat Capacity

When we heat a substance, it starts absorbing heat up to a certain limit, after which, its temperature starts rising. This limit of a substance to tolerate or absorb heat without raising the temperature is …
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d-d transition

d-d Transitions: The Reason Behind Colored Complexes

Coordination compounds exhibit unique visible colors. The reason behind this is the crystal field splitting of d-orbitals of the central metal atom. The electrons present in the ground state absorb light in visible range and …
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cloud seeding

Cloud Seeding: History, Types, and Impacts

Cloud seeding is a weather-modification method. It was discovered by Vincent J. Schaefer, an American chemist in 1946 after WWII. Its purpose is to induce rain and snowfall which may lead to reduced droughts. The …
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AAS vs AES - spectroscopic techniques

Atomic Absorption vs. Atomic Emission Spectroscopy

Spectroscopy is an advanced analytical technique. It is the study of the interaction of light with matter. Atomic absorption spectroscopy is used to evaluate the concentration of the analyte. In this technique the absorption of …
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Atomic absorption spectroscopy

Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS)

Atomic absorption spectroscopy is a precise analytical technique. It is used for the quantification of metals present in the analyte. It is one of the best techniques to detect the sample at trace levels such …
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molecular geometry

Molecular Geometry: A Complete Overview

Molecular geometry can be defined as the arrangement of atoms of molecules in a 3-dimensional space. This gives a proper shape to molecules. There are some advanced techniques that help to understand the molecular geometry …
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Schrodinger wave equation - time independent equation -

Time-Independent Schrödinger Wave Equation

In 1926, Austrian physicist Erwin Rudolph Joseph Alexander Schrödinger presented a mathematical concept of wave-particle dualism. He thought that the electrons have standing waves just like waves of a stretched string. This was a new …
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Radioactive decay - types and examples

Radioactive decay | Types and Examples

Elements with unstable nuclei undergo radioactive decay in different types or modes. The type of radioactive decay depends upon the particular nuclide involved. Radioactive decay can be characterized by alpha decay (helium nucleus), beta decay …
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nuclear chain reaction

Nuclear Chain Reactions: Types, Applications

A nuclear chain reaction is a process in which nuclear reactions repeat in a chain. For example, when a nucleus of uranium-235 is hit by a neutron, it splits into two small nuclei barium (Ba) …
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carbon dating

Carbon Dating: Principle, Methods, Examples, and Limitations

Carbon dating, also called radiocarbon dating, was discovered by Willard Frank Libby in the 1940s. It is a method used to determine the age of organic substances. It works on the principle of radioactive decay …
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half life in chemistry

Half-Life in Chemistry: Calculations and Examples

The half-life of a substance (atoms, molecules, or ions) refers to the time it takes for half of its given amount to radioactively decay. The rate at which reactants are converted into products is always …
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Physisorption vs. Chemisorption The Two ways of Adsorption - Featured image

Physisorption vs. Chemisorption: The Two Adsorptions

When a surface of solid or liquid is exposed to a substance, molecules of that substance concentrate at that surface. The phenomenon of accumulation of a substance on the surface of a solid or liquid …
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Freundlich-adsorption-isotherm

Freundlich Adsorption Isotherm: Applications and Limitations

Herbert Freundlich in 1909 gave an expression known as Freundlich adsorption isotherm, also called Freundlich equation. This equation is an empirical relationship between the quantity of gas adsorbed on the surface of the adsorbent and …
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FAI vs LAI - image

Freundlich vs. Langmuir Adsorption Isotherms

The graphical relationship between the amount of the substance being adsorbed per unit concentration of the adsorbate and the applied pressure is called adsorption isotherm. Various adsorption isotherms are employed for explaining the extent of …
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