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Featured image of Trigonal pyramidal vs Trigonal planar geometries

Trigonal pyramidal vs Trigonal planar geometry

A geometrical arrangement of molecular atoms having three branches or atoms connected to a central atom is called trigonal geometry. Now that there are different combinations of this type of geometry, trigonal pyramidal and trigonal …
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Protic vs Aprotic Solvents (with Examples) featured image

Protic vs Aprotic Solvents (with Examples)

Solvents are broadly classified into two types, polar and nonpolar solvents. Polar solvents are further divided into protic and aprotic solvents. Concisely, the difference between protic and aprotic solvents can be written as: “Protic …
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Types of Chemical Reactions and their Identifications

Types of Chemical Reactions and their Identifications

There are five basic types of chemical reactions namely synthesis, decomposition, displacement, double displacement, and combustion reactions. Understanding these types of reactions will be useful in predicting the products of chemical reactions when given only …
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Lewis acids vs Lewis bases

Lewis acid vs Lewis base

The Lewis’s concept of acids and bases was introduced by Gilbert Newton Lewis in 1923. According to Lewis concept, a compound capable of attracting a shared pair of electrons from another molecule is called an …
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Intensive vs Extensive Properties

Intensive and extensive properties are the two types of physical properties. The properties which can be observed and measured easily are called physical properties. For example color, melting point, boiling point, temperature, and odor, etc …
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Carbonyl vs Carboxyl Compounds

Carbonyl vs Carboxyl Compounds

The compounds having a carbonyl (>C=O) group are called carbonyl compounds. In a carbonyl group, there is a double bond between carbon and oxygen atom, and the carbon is further attached to hydrogens or carbons …
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Formal Charge: The Rules-Calculation-Significance

Formal Charge: The Rules, Calculation and Significance

The apparent charge assigned to an atom in a molecule is termed formal charge. It is a representation of charge distribution in a molecule assuming that all electrons are equidistant from bonding atoms with no …
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Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (AES)

Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (AES)

Atomic emission spectroscopy (AES) is an analytical technique used for the quantification of metal atoms by measuring the intensity of light emitted by the atoms in excited states. When an excited atom returns to the …
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Sigma vs Pi bond: The identifications and main differences

Sigma vs Pi bond: The Identifications and Main Differences

Sigma bond is the first bond between two atoms whereas pi bonds constitute all of the remaining bonds present in a compound. A single bond always contains one sigma bond and a double bond contains …
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Salt Bridge: Types, Preparation, Function, Significance

A salt bridge (Ion bridge) is a device that connects oxidation and reduction half cells of a galvanic cell. The two half cells of a galvanic cell remain neutral as a result. The galvanic cells …
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Endpoint vs Equivalence point: What’s the Main Difference?

Endpoint vs Equivalence point: What’s the Main Difference?

Endpoint and equivalence points are often confused. Both are important stages of any titration experiment and have many differences. Like other titration terms such as titrants, analyte, burette, and pipette, endpoint and equivalence points are …
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Thermal Energy vs Heat

The energy of a system is its capacity to do work. When work is done on an isolated system the ability of the system to do work (energy) is increased. On the other hand when …
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Chiral vs Achiral vs Meso Compounds

Chiral vs Achiral vs Meso Compounds

Chiral compounds are optically active molecules that are non-superimposable on their mirror images. Achiral compounds are optically inactive molecules that superimpose on their mirror images. However, meso compounds are optically inactive compounds with multiple chiral …
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Open, Closed and Isolated systems with examples

Open, Closed and Isolated Systems with Examples

In order to study thermodynamics, the universe is divided into two parts, the system, and the surrounding. The part of the universe under observation is called the system and all things in the universe except …
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R/S nomenclature

R/S nomenclature

RS nomenclature is currently the preferred system for assigning absolute configuration to chiral molecules. The letters R and S come from the Latin words ‘Rectus‘ and ‘Sinister‘ meaning ‘right’ and ‘left’. Molecules that rotate the …
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Ionic bond: An abstract

Ionic bond: An abstract

A bond is a collection of two electrons from different atoms (mostly), forming a pair and fulfilling the basic purpose of bonding i.e. completing octets of atoms. Atoms need to complete octets in order to …
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Azo Dyes: History, Uses, Synthesis

Azo Dyes: History, Uses, Synthesis

Azo dyes are the most diverse group of synthetic dyes. Azo dyes are prepared in two steps. The diazonium salt is produced in the first step, which then reacts with highly reactive aromatic compounds such …
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Rf values calculation

Rf values: Definition, Calculation and Explanation

Retardation or retention factor (Rf) value is the ratio of distance traveled by the analyte to that of the solvent front on a chromatogram. The chromatographic techniques in which the analytes are added to …
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Coordinate (Dative) covalent bond

Coordinate (dative) covalent bond

The coordinate covalent bond, also known as the dative bond, is a type of covalent bond where both electrons are from the same atom. Usually, it happens in molecules where metallic ions are bonded to …
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Singlet vs Triplet state diagram representation

Singlet vs Triplet State

Singlet state is attributed to the appearance of a single spectral line. This occurs because all of the electrons are paired. Originally, the singlet state is referred to as a set of particles that had …
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Ethers vs Esters

Ethers vs Esters

Ethers are organic compounds that have an oxygen atom between two hydrocarbon chains. They are derivatives of alcohols and are represented by the symbol (ROR’). While esters have a carbonyl carbon bonded to an oxygen …
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Rules for assigning oxidation states

Rules for assigning oxidation numbers

Oxidation number or oxidation state is defined as the charge an atom has in a molecule or compound. It is an apparent charge on an atom of an element in a molecule or compound. It …
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Hydrolysis of esters

Hydrolysis of esters

The hydrolysis of an ester is a reaction in which the (-OR) group of the ester is replaced by the hydroxyl (-OH) group from water. This reaction can be catalyzed either by an acid or …
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Comparison of intermolecular forces

Strength of Intermolecular Forces

Molecules are formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms. As the name suggests, intermolecular forces are the electrostatic forces between molecules. These forces can be attractive or repulsive and act between ions or atoms …
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What does principle quantum number determine?

What Does Principal Quantum Number Determine?

The principal quantum number is related to the energy and size of the atomic orbits. It is denoted by ‘n’ and has integral values. As n increases, the electronic cloud (orbital) becomes larger and the …
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Latest CBs

The boiling point is the temperature at which the vapour pressure of the liquid becomes equal to the provided atmospheric …
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Metals have a sea of free electrons in their structures. These electrons are the source of conduction when in an …
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Mercury is liquid at room temperature due to its unique electronic configuration status and special contraction in its atomic size …
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Sodium chloride has a lattice crystalline structure which corresponds to good solubility in water and its brittleness. Lattice structures are …
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Water can dissolve more chemical substances than any other solvent because of its polar nature and hydrogen bonding formation ability …
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Amines vs Amides vs Imines
Amines are the organic nitrogen compound derived from ammonia in which one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by an …
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Polar covalent bonds form when the constituent atoms have an electronegativity difference between (0.4 and 1.7). It means that the …
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Brittleness is a property of a substance that fractures when subjected to force. When stress is applied to a substance, …
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An ionic bond is formed between two atoms when there is a significant electronegativity difference i.e. (ΔEN > 1.7). Ionic …
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Chemicals float over one another because of differences between their densities. Density is the property of a substance relating to …
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The logarithmic way of expressing the concentration of hydrogen ions in simple whole numbers between 0 and 14 is called …
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A function is an expression involving one or more variables. It is a rule that relates set of inputs with …
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Quinones are oxidized derivatives of aromatic compounds. The precursors of quinones can either be benzene or naphthalene. The alkenes (-C=C-) …
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Salt makes ice colder because it lowers its freezing/melting point. As a matter of fact, when a solute is added …
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When two smaller nuclei fuse to form one larger nucleus, an enormous amount of energy is released. The masses of …
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The spontaneity of a reaction can be explained with Gibbs’s free energy. Gibbs free energy is a thermodynamic property equal …
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Metals contain metallic bonds and form lattices. A metallic lattice is a three-dimensional arrangement of metal ions. The metal cations …
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Phenolphthalein (C20H14O4) is a weak organic acid. The conjugate base of phenolphthalein (Ph-) is pink in color whereas the undissociated/acidic …
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The peptide bond is formed during a condensation reaction between two amino acids. Amide ((CO)-NH-) group and carboxylic acid (-COOH) …
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Alkali metals are reactive because they are highly electropositive. Electropositivity is the property of an atom to lose its electrons …
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The Grignard reagent is an organometallic compound (RMgX). It is a highly reactive substance because of the negative charge present …
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Carbonated beverages contain carbon dioxide gas dissolved under high pressure. The presence of carbon dioxide creates bubbles and fizziness in …
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An ideal gas has no interactions between constituent molecules and all the collisions taking place between those molecules are perfectly …
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Water evaporates, at all temperatures. This is because evaporation is a surface phenomenon. On surface, some of the water molecules …
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An atom consists of a nucleus with a positive denser part at the center and negative electrons revolving around the …
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Sucrose or sugar (C12 H22 O11) crystals are composed of polar molecules. As the rule of thumb for solubility, “like …
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Fischer esterification is an important industrial method used to produce esters. It is convenient and easy to monitor. It uses …
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All chemical reactions occur in numbers, such as in number of atoms, ions, or molecules interacting. They are so small …
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Oxygen is a social and most widely occurring natural element on earth. It is an efficiently active and lively element …
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There are many biochemical processes taking place in living organisms that are pH sensitive i.e. They are usually enzyme catalyzed …
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